Choke is a blockage of the oesophagus (the tube which food passes down from the mouth to the stomach). It is not a blockage of the trachea (windpipe) unlike “choke” in humans. Blockages are typically caused by food such as unsoaked sugar beet pulp or pieces of carrot and apple but can be caused many different things.
Horses with choke usually have a frothy discharge from both nostrils- this may be white or green or food coloured (this is a mixture of saliva and food that has not passed down into the stomach). They often make repeated attempts to swallow and may stretch their necks out, or may appear to have “spasms” of the neck. Some horses with choke may cough (often coughing out saliva). Horses may appear anxious but should not show signs of colic such as rolling.
Horses with choke are usually given drugs to relax their oesophagus, and may be given sedatives to keep them calm and encourage them to keep their heads low (which helps the saliva to drain from the nose and reduces the risk of food and saliva being inhaled into the windpipe). In some cases horses are given antibiotics to protect them from developing lung infections. In many cases, these are the only treatments necessary because most choke cases will resolve spontaneously if left long enough (although this can take more than 24 hours in some cases). If the choke fails to clear with these conservative treatments, it may sometimes be necessary to pass a stomach tube and attempt to gradually lavage (wash out) the obstruction; this is usually only done if the horse has had choke for a long period of time (more than one to two days). This procedure can sometimes be done standing under sedation, but in other cases it may be necessary to perform the lavage under a brief general anaesthetic. In long-standing choke cases it may also be necessary to administer intravenous fluids and electolytes if the horse is becoming dehydrated.
If you think your horse has choke, don’t panic! Most cases of choke will clear by themselves within a couple of hours without the need for any treatment. Take all food and water away from the horse (including edible bedding) and keep an eye on them. Gently massaging the left side of the neck over the jugular groove may help. The horse should look brighter when the choke clears and food and saliva will stop coming from the nostrils.
Most cases clear by them selves very quickly and you may not need to call the vet but the vet should be called if:
The choke continues for more than around 2 hours,
The horse is distressed,
The horse has any signs of colic (choke does not normally cause colic),
The horse is having difficulty breathing,
The horse is off colour or develops a cough in the few days after having choke.